Saturday, June 16, 2007

Blood Tranfusion

What Is Blood Transfusion?
Blood Transfusion is a process of transferring blood or blood-based products from person to other person according to Blood grouping matching(A, B, AB, or O)and each type have 2 Rhesus (REE-sus) or "Rh" types should be matching too. The Rh types are positive and negative. All blood, even O negative blood, can have antibodies (AN-ti-bah-dees).

When you need Blood Transfusion?
Blood transfusions can be life-saving in some situations and will be given who anybody want to do surgery procedure or getting massive blood loss due to trauma, or can be used to replace blood lost during surgery. Blood transfusions may also be used to treat a severe anaemia or thrombocytopenia caused by a blood disease. People suffering from hemophilia or sickle-cell disease may require frequent blood transfusions.

Does Blood Transfusion safe?
If the blood transfusion given to other person precede by screened it will be save to the patients live, but if it's not screened it will be transfer many disease to the recipient through transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) such as HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis from blood donated. Therefore donated blood should be tested for other infections such as Chagas Disease and Malaria. Blood is also tested to identify the blood group and for the presence of irregular red cell antibodies before transfusion. This is to make sure the patient who will receive compatible blood in order to avoid serious haemolytic transfusion reactions.

Transfusion Procedure
  1. Ensure each pack is label with A,B,O and rhesus (D) group and the individual component number also record on the blood product document.
  2. Check the patient identity on the blood product document againts the patient
    wrist bend.
  3. Prior administration, record details, on the blood component infusion in the patient note, including date, time of issue, product pact number, ordering medical officer, given by, checked by, time started.
  4. Infuse all blood component through giving set whit an integral filter to trap large aggregates. Microaggregate filter are not routinely require.
  5. Never add any drug to a blood component infusion.
  6. Do not use giving set which previously contained dextrose or gelatin.
  7. Red cell concentrates may be diluted with 0.9% saline using a Y giving set to improve flow rates. Never add any other solution.
Complication of Blood Transfusion
Rapid infusion of blood products may lead to hypothermia. Blood product are normaly store 2-6 celcius deggre. Use blood warmers routinely for rapid transfusion. Never warm a blood product by putting a pack into hot water, on radiator, or any other heat source.
Occasionally complications caused by blood transfusions as a below:
  • Fluid overload - this common side effect can be lessened by slowly introducing the donated blood.
  • Allergic reaction - the most common complication. The recipient’s immune system treats the donated blood products as a threat. Symptoms include itching, dizziness, headache and difficulties in breathing.
  • Haemolytic reaction - occurs if the recipient is given the wrong type of blood. The transfused red blood cells are killed off. Symptoms include a feeling of pressure in the chest, back pain and difficulties in breathing. Haemolytic reaction can sometimes be life threatening.
  • Graft versus host disease - where the donated white blood cells destroy the recipient’s cells. The symptoms include low blood pressure and fever. It is also life threatening.
Transfusion Reaction
Monitor the patient especially closely the firsts 5-10 times of the infusion of the each unit of blood to detect early clinical evidence of acute reactions. Treat allergic reaction include itching, urticaria, bronchospasm, and fever.
If a transfusion reaction is suspected:
  • Stop the transfusion.
  • Keep the IV line open with 0,9% saline.
  • Double check the blood unit label with the patient's wrist identity band and other identifiers.
  • Send the unit of blood product and giving set to the blood bank.
  • Take 40 mL of blood. Send it as follows:
  • 5 mL anticoagulated and 5 mL clotted blood to blood bank.
    10 mL for u&E.
    10 mL for coagulation screening.
    10 mL for blood culture.
  • Contact the blood bank directly by phone for further advice and if further transfusion is required

1 comment:

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