Saturday, August 12, 2006


Infection is an invasion of the body by pathogenic organisms that multiply and produce injurious effect. Communicable disease is an infectious disease that was be transmitted from one person to another.
Chain of transmitted event as a following:

  1. Causative agent: invading organism (e.q,bacteria,virus)
  2. Reservoir:environment in which the invading organism lives and multiplies
  3. Portal of exit: mode of escape from reservoir (e.q, respiratory tract, gastro interitis tract)
  4. Mode of transmission: methode by which invading organism is transported to new host (e.q, direct contact,air,food)
  5. Portal of entry: means by which organism enter new host (e.q,respiratory tract,broken skin)
  6. Susseptible host: sussebtibility determined by factors such as number of invading organisms,duration of exposure,age,state of health,nutrition status.


Nursing responsibilities to minimize any infection that will be spread to other patients, therefore nursing should be take action as soon as possible before infection spreading.The nursing action as a below:
  1. Maintain environment that is clean,dry and well ventilation
  2. Use proper hand washing before and after client contact and after contact with contaminated material
  3. Disinfected and handle wastes and contaminated material properly
  4. Prevent transmission of infectious droplets,
  5. Institute proper isolation techniques as required by specific disease
  6. Use surgical technique when appropriate,caring for open wound,irrigating,or entering sterile cavites
  7. Practice universal precaution when caring for all clients regadless of their diagnosis in order to minimize contact whit the blood and body fluids and prevent the transmission of specific infections susch as Hepatitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

Safety is one of way to protect nurses who working in Hospital,sometime that nurses work very busy or there is no any safety supervisor they do careless to themselves, so, tink safety first and protect to your self before do any help or assist to the patients. The following safety way nurses must be comply, as a below:
  1. Hands must always be washed before and after contac with clients even when gloves have been used.
  2. If hand come in contact with blood,body fluids,or tumor tissue they should be immediately washed with soap and water.
  3. Gloves should be worn before touching blood or body fluids,mucous membranes,or nonintact skin


Anonymous said...

Hand disinfection
VRE is believed to be transmitted from patient to patient. Thus efforts aimed at improving hand disinfection compliance should lead to decreases in VRE. To this date, no studies have shown an effect on increased hand disinfection as a single intervention in decreasing VRE. It is believed that products such as alcohol-based disinfectants that
may lead to sustained increased hand disinfection compliance may have an impact on VRE but to date no studies have shown this effect.
In 1995 the Subcommittee on the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial-Resistant Microorganisms in Hospitals of the CDC’s Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) published recommendations to control the spread of vancomycin resistance. The panel stated from the outset that “the data are limited and considerable research will be required to elucidate fully the epidemiology of VRE and determine cost-effective control strategies.”
So mr. maruf, please update your information in your article about Hand disinfection......

Anonymous said...


Cellulitis is a common problem in primary care but only a minority are referred to consultants or admitted for inpatient treatment. A review of a patient database in five urban hospitals showed 3929 diagnoses of cellulitis representing 1•3% of Emergency Department visits; 7% required inpatient treatment

Cellulitis usually presents with pain, erythema with typically indistinct borders and swelling. Fever and regional lymphadenitis are occasionally seen. In a predominately outpatient population, pain, erythema, and swelling were described in 69%, 78%, and 69% of cases, respectively, while fever and lymphadenitis occurred in only 7% and 10% of patients.1 For an inpatient population, pain, erythema, and swelling were
seen in 87%, 79%, and 90%, respectively, and fever occurred in 63% of patients.2 Unfortunately, these signs and symptoms are not specific and many other processes can present with similar clinical findings, for example superficial or deep vein thrombophlebitis, fasciitis, hematoma, dermatitis, and local reaction to a bite or sting.

Most commonly Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are the pathogens.
Less often and usually associated with underlying chronic disease, immunosuppression, or infection at a particular site, for example periorbital cellulitis with sinusitis, pathogens can include Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other Streptococci spp., gram-negative bacilli, Clostridia spp., and other anaerobes. In a data registry of hospitalized patients in Canada and the USA, 1562 bacterial isolates
were identified over 1 year in a wide variety of patients with skin and soft-tissue infections: S. aureus accounted for 42•6% of isolates, with 24% being MRSA, P. aeruginosa (11•3%), Enterococcus spp. (8•1%), Escherichia coli (7•2%), Enterobacter spp. (5•2%), and -hemolytic streptococci (5•1%). Essentially the same rank was seen in both countries with the exception of Enterococcus spp. which was third in the USA and seventh in Canada.5 If there is a concern with exposure to water, certain specific organisms should be considered. In salt water, Vibrio vulnificus can cause a cellulitis and a potentially life-threatening infection in patients with liver disease. In fresh water, Aeromonas hydrophilia is a possible pathogen.

Where is the data about the succesfully of the nursing responsibilities that improve decreasing mortality and morbidity the infectious diseases ?